Possibilty of using
Throughout the history, the use of thermal waters was popular from the ancient times. There are archeological evidences about their usage for cooking, washing and bathing further in the primordial history. Thermal waters were used in the ancient Greek, Roman and Ottoman imperia, in balneology purposes. At the time, balneological thermal and thermomineral waters started to be used in industrial and other purposes. Today, thermal and thermomineral waters are used for various purposes. Large amount applicable water is found in industry, agriculture, balneology and in sport-recreative activities.
During the period from 1975 to 1994, in Serbia, investigations of this type of energy were more initiated, but not enough in the sphere of their using. Around the world, geothermal energy use attains enviable level. There are many examples of electric energy derivation, toplification of agricultural objects and toplification of settlements, balneology and sport-recreative purposes.
Situation of thermal and thermomineral using (Freeston 1995).
During last years, heat pumps find their part in toplification of settlements, industries and other objects.
Heat pumps are devices which can transport the heat energy from one environment to another. For the transport of this heat energy it is necessary to spend energy which is several times smaller than transferred energy.
Geothermal heat pumps are widely used in the whole world. They use the Earth as a heat source in the winter, and in the summer they are used for the heat return in the Earth. Therefore, it can be told that they are trustful for the heating and cooling of the rooms. Through the underground pipe system they transfer the heat from warmer ground or water source to the object in the winter, while in the summer they take the heat from the object and transport it into the soil. According to this, it can be concluded that the geothermal heat pumps do not make the heat; they transfer the heat from one environment to another.
Now, there are two types of the heat pumps on the market:
Opened system "water-water" uses underground water as a source of thermal energy. Underground waters are brought by pumps to heat pump, which thermal water energy delivers further to the object. Underground waters are characteristic, because they have constant temperature during the whole year, so they are a great source of thermal energy.
This system uses pipe exchanger in the earth, which is connected to heat pumps sited in an object inside. Depending on the terrain configuration and location, system can be laid horizontally by court around the house or vertically in the place where there is no space around the object (at residential objects).
Geothermal heat pumps represent one of the most efficient energetic devices, where no requisite for other heat source is necessary and where there is no pollution of environment.