The origin of bottled waters can be traced back to the earliest civilizations. Precise date of mineral water discovery is unknown for the man, but it is linked to the year 400 B.C. when the Greek doctor Hippocrat noted some facts in the book "Airs Waters, and Places".
With an expansion of Roman Imperia, many famous springs of England, Germany, Belgium and Italy became an important miracle from medical aspect. The Romans investigated favourable, therapeutic characteristics of water and developed together with a restitution of their empery. According to a legend, after crossing the Pyrenees, Hannibal, the famous general of the Carthaginian army, rested his troops and elephants at Les Bouillens in France - the location of the Perrier spring.
The spa movement that began to emerge in Europe in the XVIII century had its origins in baths dating from Roman times. Science and medicine touted natural mineral water beneficial effects for bathing, showering and drinking. For example, during 1760 people came to Contrexeville in France - at the Contrex spring for a cure to eliminate kidney stones. The spa tradition also developed in many other countries including Italy at San Pellegrino baths. The American spas became popular in North, Central and South America in 1767, so these waters of spring Jackson's Spa in Boston flushed and were sold to satisfy rapid growth of requests and its therapeutic effect. In 1800, waters from mineral spring near the Albany - New York, bottled for commercial use and in 1820 waters of Saratoga spring were bottled and sold. In 1845 waters from Poland spring were bottled for sale in three-gallon dishes. In South America, in Brazil, São Lourenço water was bottled in 1890. The first commercial bottling, noted in France, was in 1873. The legal permission for bottling of natural mineral waters Saint Galmier of Badoit spring was guaranteed in 1837. Perrier followed in 1863 and other European countries a few years later. In 1903, natural mineral waters of Vittel Grande and Hépar source were decreed as “d’intérêt public” waters (waters of public interests) by the French authors.
In the early days, consumption of bottled natural mineral waters was he privilege of the haute bourgeoisie, captains of industry, politicians, royalty and so on. It was bottled in glass or stoneware, with a porcelain or cork stoppers.
Universal bottles, which we use today, probably have origin from glass bottles, which were made in Syria in the period of 100 years B.C. The artists blew the air through the blob of melting glass and formed the hollow dishes.
The glass was made of the mixture of sand and lime and this mixture slowly heated on the temperature of 2500 oF for their coal essence. The first glass shapes were put away to cool on the temperature of 1800 oF for reaching the right consistency.
At that time conditions were very difficult. The heat and dust were always present and the production was limited on 1500 bottles per day because the crew of three blowers and three assistants were engaged in this making.
Many bottles, which were made in this way, had the green and blue shadows in the glass. This was eminent because of the iron impurities, which were present in raw material.
Some additional impurities were put into a raw glass on purpose, so there were different combination of glass from the beginning.
In primordial days of mineral waters development, plug assortment was from cork. With an aim of natural quality preservation, it was necessary to keep moisture of cork. One of the methods used in Europe was to put bottle with a tip downward so the water could be in continual contact with a cork. The bottom of the bottle was in a circle shape so it enabled laying up of the bottle.
By the mid-nineteenth century, the development of railways and the appearance of industrial production techniques were gradually transforming the business. Bottling methods changed as consumption spread and by the mid-twentieth century global production climbed to several hundred million bottles.
Vittel revolutionized the market in 1968 by launching the first plastic bottle - aimed at moving the general public consumption. It supported its launch with an advertising campaign emphasizing vitality rather than medical benefits.
The removal of package brand, such as glass bottle, which existed for almost 100 years, happened with a launch of a new type of package which appeared in Europe. It was invented in France for necessities of packing of special rouge. This material made of PET is composed of two layers of plastic with a nylon layer in the middle. Approximation weight is about 36 gr PET bottles succumb to process which is composed of two phases of air blowing in mould. Launching of this material on the market needs about 11 years of material investigations, which can keep the taste as well as several millions of bubbles in every bottle. This new more resistant material upgrades bottling and becomes easier for consumer consumption.
Technique of water carbonating
In 1967, scientist Dr Joseph Priestly discovered a technique of water carbonating. He started with experiments of "stimulating the air gas in natural mineral waters". In one of their intentions, he used primitive instruments for shooting water from one dish to another. These instruments were near the dishes for fermentation from the local brewery. He found that water easily absorbed gas, letter identified as CO2, the same one that is in our favorite beverages and tickles our tonsils. This discovery bolstered the commercial development of the industry of soda water and mineral waters. Priestly published his discovery under the title "Directions for Impregnating Water with Fixed Air".
During the beginning of 1806, the professor at the University of Yeyle, Benjamin Sillman made success in the producing of small quantities of artificial water carbonated in New Haven.
It is believed that the first sparkling drink was made in Philadelphia in 1807 when Dr Philip Syng asked a chemist to provide carbonated water for the potable increase of the beverage.
Sparkling beverages did not gain their larger popularity until 1832 when John Mathews invented instrument for CO2 addition to water.
First water bottling in Serbia
The beginning of organized water packing in Serbia is connected to the beginning of the nineteenth century when the manual bottling of carbonate water "Knjaz Miloš" started. Bukovička carbonated water was used for drinking in the first place, because of medical and refreshment characteristics and the first chemical analisis were attempted on the very spring by E. Lindenmajer in 1836 who found that this water "u raznim tegobama od prevelike polze biti". This qualified that in the following years this spring would resort many patients and in July of 1839 princess Ljubica stationed on this place. In 1837 princ Miloš demanded water from the spring Bukovik in Kragujevac to be brought to him "in butel". The first and highest rewards for the quality, this water attained in 1906 in Brisel and in 1907 in London.